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Research On Spinoscopy

There is substantial scientific research supporting the theory and use of Spinoscopy. This has been published in numerous scientific journals and in various book chapters. When available, the hyperlinks on this page lead to article abstracts.

Scientific Periodicals

Marriott A, Newman N, Gracovetsky S, Richards M, and Asselin S. Improving the Evaluation of Benign Low Back Pain. Spine 24(10) : 1999. In Press.

Mitnitski A, Yahia LH, Newman NM, Gracovetsky SA and Feldman AG. Coordination between Lumbar Spine Lordosis and Trunk Angle during Weight Lifting. Clinical Biomechanics 13(2) : 121-127, 1998.

Marriott A, Gracovetsky SA, Newman N, Richards M and Asselin S. Managing Back Injury: Improving Clinical Examinations by Incorporating Objective Measurements of Functional Limitations. Rehab Management Dec/Jan : 70-74, 1998.

Gracovetsky SA, Newman N, Richards M, Asselin S, Lanzo V and Marriott A. Evaluation of Clinician and Machine Performance in the Assessment of Low Back Pain. Spine 23(5) :568-575, 1998.

Xeller CF. Use of the Spinex International to Help Determine Impairment of the Lumbar Spine. J Neurol Orthop Med Surg. 18 : 151-153, 1998.

Gracovetsky SA, Newman, N, and Marriott, A, Manque D'Objectivite du Patient Lombalgique : Reconnaitre Cette Situation, Evaluer et Ameliorer la Performance du Diagnostic. La revue de médecine orthopédique 49 : 23-30, 1997

Gracovetsky, SA, Marriott, A, Richards, M, Newman, N, and Asselin, S. The Impact of Inefficient Clinical Diagnosis on the Cost of Managing Low Back Pain. J. Healthcare Risk Management 17 : 21-31, 1997.

Gracovetsky SA and Newman N. General comments about Dr. Leclaire’s Article and the "Point of View". Spine Letter to the Editor, 22 : 360-361, 1997.

Leclaire R, Esdaile JM, Jéquier JC, Hanley JA, Rossignol M and Bourdouxhe M. Diagnostic Accuracy of Technologies Used in Low Back Pain Assessment. Spine 21 : 1325-1331, 1996.

Newman N, Gracovetsky SA, Itoi M, Zucherman J, Richards M, Durand P, Xeller C, Carr D. Can the Computerized Physical Examination Differentiate Normal Subjects from Abnormal Subjects with Benign Mechanical Low Back Pain? Clinical Biomechanics 11(8) :466-473, 1996.

Xeller C, Athari M, Baker J and Rao P. LumbarSpinoscopies in Asymptomatic Individuals, Correlation with MRIs. J Neurol Orthop Med Surg 17 :56-57, 1996.

Gracovetsky SA. Role des sacro-iliaques dans la locomotion. Un lien entre le moteur vertebral et le mouvement des jambes. La revue de médecine orthopédique 45 :14-20, 1996.

Gracovetsky SA, Pawlowsky M, Newman N, Lanzo V, Davey B, Robinson L. Database for Estimating Normal Spinal Motion Derived from Non-invasive Measurements. Spine 20 :1036-1046, 1995.

Roozmon P, Gracovetsky SA, Gouw GJ, Newman N. Examining Motion in the Cervical Spine. Part I: Imaging Systems and Measurement Techniques. Journal of Biomedical Engineering 15(1) : 5-12, 1993.

Roozmon P, Gracovetsky SA, Gouw GJ, Newman N. Examining Motion in the Cervical Spine Part II: Characterization of Coupled Joint Motion Using an Opto–Electronic Device to Track Skin Markers. Journal of Biomedical Engineering 15(1) : 13-22, 1993.

Gracovetsky S, Kary M, Levy S, Ben Saïd R, Pitchen I, Hélie J. Analysis of Spinal and Muscular Activity during Flexion/Extension and Free Lifts. Spine 15(12) : 1333-1339, 1990.

Gracovetsky S, Kary M, Pitchen I, Levy S, Ben Saïd R. The Importance of Pelvic Tilt in Reducing Compressive Stress in the Spine during Flexion-Extension Exercises. Spine 14(4) : 412-416, 1989.

Gracovetsky S, Kary M. The Spinex International: A Tool Allowing the Physician to Objectively Assess Impairment, Disability, and Capacity of the Spine. Journal of Insurance Medicine 20(3) : 23-29, 1988.

Gracovetsky S, Zeman V, Carbone A. The Relationship between Lordosis and the Position of the Centre of Reaction of the Spinal Disc. Journal of Biomedical Engineering 9(3) : 237-248, 1987b.

Macintosh JE, Bogduk N, Gracovetsky S. The Biomechanics of the Thoracolumbar Fascia. Clinical Biomechanics 2 : 78-83, 1987.

Gracovetsky S. The Resting Spine. Physical Therapy 67(4) : 549-553, 1987.

Gracovetsky S, Iacono S. Energy Transfers in the Spinal Engine. Journal of Biomedical Engineering 9 : 99-114, 1987a.

Gracovetsky S, Farfan H. The Optimum Spine. Spine 11(6) : 543-573, 1986.

Gracovetsky S. Function of the Spine. Journal of Biomedical Engineering 8 : 217-233, 1986.

Gracovetsky S. Determination of Safe Load. British Journal of Industrial Medicine 43(2) : 120-134, 1986.

Gracovetsky S, Farfan H. The Abdominal Mechanism. Spine 10(4) : 317-324, 1985.

Gracovetsky S. A Hypothesis for the Role of the Spine in Human Locomotion: a Challenge to Current Thinking. Journal of Biomedical Engineering 7(3) : 205-216, 1985.

Helleur C, Gracovetsky S, Farfan H, Wingrowicz E. Modelling of the Muscular Response of the Cervical Spine. Mathematical Modelling 6(5) : 443-462, 1985.

Helleur C, Gracovetsky S, Farfan H. Tolerance of the Human Cervical Spine to High Acceleration: A Modelling Approach. Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine 55 : 903-909, 1984.

Farfan H, Gracovetsky S. The Nature of Instability. Spine 9(7) : 714-719, 1984.

Farfan H, Gracovetsky S. On the Nature of Arthritis. Journal of Rheumatology Supplement to the, (9), 1983.

Gracovetsky S, Farfan H, Lamy C. The Mechanism of the Lumbar Spine. Spine 6(3) : 249-262, 1981.

Gracovetsky S, Farfan H, Lamy C. A Mathematical Model of the Lumbar Spine using an Optimized System to Control Muscles and Ligaments. Orthopaedic Clinics of North America 8(1) : 135-153, 1977.

Books and Chapter Contributions

Gracovetsky, SA. Linking the Spinal Engine with the Legs: a Theory of Human Gait. In: Vleeming et al., eds. Movement, Stability and Low Back Pain. Churchill Livingstone 1997, Chapter 20 : 243-251.

Gracovetsky S. The Function of the Spine from an Evolutionary Perspective. In: Wiesel S et al., eds. The Lumbar Spine. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders 1996. 2nd ed.

Gracovetsky S. Biomechanics of the Spine. In: White AW and Schofferman JA, eds. Spine Care: Diagnosis and Conservative Treatment. St. Louis: Mosby Year-Book 1995 : 116-38.

Tarantino JA and Oliveria DJ. Litigating Neck and Back Injuries. Jurczynski D, ed. James Publishing Group, California 1991 : supplement S329 :16-22.29

Gracovetsky S. Musculoskeletal Function of the Spine. In: Winters J, ed. Multiple Muscle Systems: Biomechanics and Movement Organization. New York: Springer-Verlag 1990 : 410-36.

Gracovetsky S. The Spine as a Motor in Sports: Application to running and lifting. In: Hochschuler SH, ed. Spinal Injuries in Sports. Philadelphia: Hanley and Belfus, Spine 1990; 4 : 267-86.

Gracovetsky S. The Spinal Engine. New York: Springer-Verlag 1988, 505pp.

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